This year, the venerable anniversary is celebrated by International trucks, well known in our country. And it is trucks – in 1907 appeared the first commercial chassis of this brand. The company itself is older than seventy years: it has been producing winnowing reapers since 1831 and by that time was a big concern. Hence the original name – International Harvester with the abbreviation IH.
The first truck was typical for that time: an open wagon on huge wooden wheels with a chain drive in the drive. The name corresponded to the design – Auto Buggy. The two-cylinder gasoline engine developed 20 hp, which was enough to transport a couple of people and three hundred kilograms of cargo.
Since that time, the development of products has been “in step with the times”: the capacity and carrying capacity have increased, the program has expanded, and the release figures have grown. So, by the beginning of World War II, a million Inter was released, and the program included more than forty models with a carrying capacity from 500 kg to 20 tons.
The most massive family of the postwar era was the K / KV, which was developed before the war and included a wide gamut from a halftone KV-1 to a heavy KV-14. It is this series is considered the prototype of our ZiS-150. But this is not entirely true: it is only necessary to talk about following a common style, common for all trucks of that time.
The beginning of the 1960s was marked by a complete redrawing of the entire huge program. It was then that the company began to use sonorous names in the family names that ended in “star”. So there were delivery trucks Cargostar and hood Loadstar, working Fleetstar and Transtar. At the same time, the company produced its own booths, frames and engines, and other units, as is customary in the US so far, were purchased from specialized suppliers.
And in 1973 appeared the company’s future bestseller, which for the first time after the war was supplied to the USSR. It was a heavy three-axle dump truck Paystar with a huge gross weight of 33 tons for those years. It was equipped with three engines to choose from, including the 330-horsepower Cummins NTA-270, 13-speed manual gearbox, spring suspension and drum brakes. By results of tests in our NAMI, only two notes appeared to it: a large load on the front axle and a rigid suspension. And as a result, a large batch of dump trucks and concrete mixers was purchased for work in Central Asia.
In the late 1970s, Inter’s broad expansion into foreign markets began. The company bought out Spanish cargo group Enasa (Pegaso and Ebro brands), English Seddon Atkinson, a third of the Dutch DAP. It was planned a sharp increase in sales on all continents.
However, instead of the expected take-off, this led to a deep crisis. And sales drastically sank home, in the US. As a result, we had to abandon all foreign “subsidiaries”, and in the States themselves to sell agricultural and construction departments and for a year even to suspend the production of trucks. After the reorganization in 1986, the new official name of the company, Navistar International, appeared, because the company now did not produce harvesters or reapers.
Then the program began to be updated. It was greatly reduced, and trucks received digital designations instead of sonorous names. Chassis for delivery vans became series 1000, simple construction trucks – 2000, city – 4000. Trunk tractors started with the series 8000 (for “short shoulder”) and 9000. By the way, it was the “nine thousand” cars that appeared in Russia in the early 1990s in the form of beyushka.
A revolutionary breakthrough should be considered the initiative of the Russian firm Goodwill, which, being a dealer of the brand, in 2008, organized in Pushkin near Peter assembly of Beskapotnikov series 9800i. By that time in the US, they were no longer produced, and the cabins came from Brazil. The cabins themselves were not the deepest (225 cm) and low (the plastic “cap” from above was developed on the Goodwill itself). On such tractors installed 11-liter diesel Cummins ISM-370 and 13-speed “mechanics” Fuller RTLO. Later in the same place they collected a lot of 7600 Kapotnikov, but after a while the topic was closed on the initiative of the American side.
Now, the International program, which, by the way, remains the only independent producer of heavy machinery in the States, is expanding again, starting with heavy Terrastar pickups to the newest family of LT buses (the company again goes from names to abbreviations). Navistar is also active in the military industry: the Navistar Defense division produces a wide range of tactical vehicles, including armored vehicles. In addition, the joint venture with the German concern MAN produces a line of MaxxPro engines.